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PART 1. Eye-to-eye with exponentiation...

Astronomical digression

This image is a part of the Hubble Deep Field image, a very long look by Hubble Space Telescope at a tiny patch of the sky. Very faint and distant (i.e. relatively young) galaxies of different shapes are visible, some clustered, some isolated, elliptical and spiral. There is evidence that many of them harbor supermassive black holes in their centers.

PART 2. ...and the complex Universe

What does Part 1 have to do with the structure of the following astronomical objects:

  1. Stars
  2. Star clusters (globular and open)
  3. Galaxies (elliptical and spiral)
  4. Warped disks of galaxies
  5. Galaxy groups and clusters
  6. Black holes
  7. Black hole clusters

The full history of this problem is told here.

If you want to give up the fun of thinking about this problem, here you can see the solutions to Part 1 , as well as Part 2.